Сборник упражнений по английской грамматике для школьников.
Грамматика. Ключи к упражнениям 1 - 50. Пятое издание
Ю. Б. Голицынский
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1. This is a book. It is my book. 2. Is this your pencil? — No, it isn't my pencil, it is my sister's pencil. 3. I have a sister. My sister is an engineer. My sister's husband is a doctor. 4. I have no handbag. 5. She has got a headache. 6. Have they got a car? — Yes, they have. Their car is not very expensive but reliable. 7. Have you got a calculator? — No, I haven't.
8. Is this a watch? — No, it isn't a watch, it's a pen.
9. This pen is good, and that pen is bad. 10. I can see pencils on your table, but I can see no paper. 11. Give me a chair, please. 12. They have a dog and two cats.
13. I have a spoon in my plate, but I have no soup in it.
14. My friend says he is going to be a millionaire one day. 15. Would you like an orange? 16. Mr. Smith is an artist, Mrs. Smith is a poetess.
1. He hasn't got a car. But he's got a computer. The computer is new. 2. My friends have got a cat and a dog. The dog never bites the cat. 3. This is a tree. The tree is green. 4. I can see three boys. The boys are playing. 5. I have a bicycle. The bicycle is black. My friend has no bicycle. 6. Our room is large. 7. We wrote a dictation yesterday. The dictation was long. 8. She has two daughters and one son. Her son is a pupil. 9. Last year I gave my mother a bracelet for her birthday. She liked the bracelet. 10. My brother's friend
has no dog. 11. This pencil is broken. Give me that pencil, please. 12. She has a ball. The ball is big. 13. I got a letter from my friend yesterday. The letter was interesting. 14. When they were in Geneva, they stayed at a hotel. Sometimes they had dinner at the hotel and sometimes in a restaurant. 15. I've got an idea. 16. What a shame.
1. This is a pen. The pen is red. 2. These are pencils. The pencils are black. 3. This is soup. The soup is tasty.
4. In the morning I eat a sandwich and drink tea.
5. She gave me coffee and a cake. The coffee was hot. The cake was tasty. 6. Do you like ice cream? 7. I see a book in your hand. Is the book interesting? 8. Do you need a camera? 9. He never eats meat, he always eats vegetables, cereals, seeds, fruit, and nuts. He is a vegetarian. 10. This is a pineapple. The pineapple is delicious. 11. Elaine, apples are good for you! 12. My cousin is upset. He's got a sore throat. 13. This is cottage cheese. The cottage cheese is fresh. 14. She bought meat, butter and potatoes yesterday. She also bought a cake. The cake was very tasty. We ate the cake with tea. 15. This is my table. On the table I have a book, two pencils, a pen and paper. 16. This is a bag. The bag is brown. It is my sister's bag. And this is my bag. It is yellow.
1. I have two sisters. My sisters are students. 2. We are at home. 3. My brother is not at home, he is at school. 4. My mother is at work. She is a doctor. 5. I am not a doctor. 6. I have no sister. 7. He is not a pilot. 8. I have thirty-two teeth. 9. He has a child.
10. She has two children. Her children are at school.
11. Is your father at home? — No, he is at work.
12. Where is your brother? — He is at home.
1. We have a large family. 2. My granny often tells us long interesting stories. 3. My father is an engineer. He works at a factory. The factory is large. 4. My mother is a doctor. She works at a large hospital. She is at work now. 5. My aunt is a teacher. She works at a school. The school is good. My aunt is not at the school now. She is at home. She is drinking tea and eating jam. The jam is sweet. I am at home, too. I am drinking tea and eating a sandwich. The sandwich is tasty. 6. My sister is at school. She is a pupil. 7. My cousin has a big black cat. My cousin's cat has two kittens. The cat likes milk. The kittens like milk, too. 8. I am an engineer. 9. My son is a pupil. 10. He is a good pupil. 11. This is a house. 12. This is my pencil. 13 You have some pencils, but I have no pencil. Give me a pencil, please.
1. What's the weather like today? — The weather is fine. 2. The sun is yellow. 3. The sky is grey today. 4. The Earth is a planet. 5. We had an English lesson yesterday. The teacher asked me many questions. The questions were difficult. 6. Where is your brother? — He is at home. He is in his room. He is sitting at the table. He is doing his homework. The homework is difficult. 7. Our cat is sitting on the sofa. 8. It is very dark in the room. Turn on the light, please. 9. Nick went into the bathroom, turned on the water and washed his hands.
1. This is a good book. Take the book from the table. Put this book into the bookcase. 2. The weather is fine today. The sky is blue. The sun is shining brightly in
the blue sky. 3. This is a boy. The boy is at school. He is a pupil. This boy is my brother's friend. He has a cat, but he has no dog. He likes his cat. He gives the cat milk every day. 4. Yesterday I received a letter from my friend. The letter was interesting. 5. We live in a big house. I like the house very much. 6. Are you a worker? — No, I am a student. 7. I like your beautiful flower. Give me the flower, please. 8. My mother Is at home. She is reading an interesting book. 9. My father is not at home. He is at work. He is a doctor. He is a good doctor. He works at a hospital. The hospital is large.
Where are the things?
1. There is a big tree in the garden. 2. There is a bank near here. — Where is the bank? 3. There i a new supermarket in the centre of our town. 4. There is a hotel over there. The hotel isn't cheap. 5. Where is the cat? — The cat is on the sofa. 6. Where is the book?
— The book is on the shelf. 7. Where are the flowers?
— The flowers are in a beautiful vase. 8. Where is the vase? — The vase is on a little table near the window. 9. Open the window, please. The weather is fine today. I can see the sun in the sky. I can see a nice little bird. The bird is sitting in a big tree. The tree is green. 10. There is a little white cloud in the sky. 11. We have a large room. There is a big sofa in the room and a little lamp on the wall over the sofa. I like to sit on the sofa and read a good book.
1. There is a wonderful small computer in front of the books there. 2. Where is the soup? — The soup is in a big saucepan on the gas cooker. 3. Where are the cutlets? — The cutlets are in the refrigerator on a little plate. 4. There is no bread on the table. Where is
the bread? 5. There is a little brown coffee table in our room in front of the sofa. 6. Where is the table in your room? 7. There is a thick carpet on the floor in my mother's room. 8. Is your brother at home? — No, he is at work. He works at a big factory. He is an engineer. 9. My sister has many books. The books are in n big bookcase. 10. The weather is fine today. Let's go mid play in the yard. There are many children in the yard. They are playing with a ball.
1. I see a bottle of pineapple juice on the kitchen table. 2. Her son has a great sense of humor. 3. There was a discotheque at the club last Saturday but he didn't go. 4. Is there a bus stop near the building? 5. We have a big dog. The dog is very clever. 6. My friend has a very good computer. 7. This boy is big. He is a student. 8. There is a very large piano in the hall.
9. This is a tree and that is not a tree. It's a bush.
10. I am a boy. I am a pupil. I study at school. 11. My sister is at work. She is a secretary. She works at и large office. 12. This is a very difficult question. I don't know the answer to it. 13. Do you see a little girl with a big ball in her hands? She is a pupil of our school. 14. There was a beautiful flower in this vase yesterday. Where is the flower now? 15. Last year we were in Geneva. It is an exciting city to visit, but a very expensive place to live.
1. There is a jar of orange marmalade in the middle of the shelf. 2. There is a big box of cereal to the right of you. 3. There is a bunch of bananas on the table. Don't keep them in the refrigerator. 4. There is a loaf of white bread on the upper shelf of the refrigerator. If you want your bread to be fresh, keep it only in the
refrigerator. 5. Is there a bag of flour in the cupboard? 6. There was a bottle of lemonade in the corner of the kitchen. 7. There is a thick red carpet in my room. The carpet is on the floor in front of the sofa. 8. Where is the table in your brother's room? — His table is near the window. 9. I can see a fine vase on the shelf- Is it your vase? 10. We have no piano in our living room. 11. My uncle is married. He has a beautiful wife. They have a son, but they have no daughter. 12. I can see a nice coffee table in the middle of the room to the right of the door. It is black and red. I like the coffee table. 13. Our TV set is on a little table in the corner of the room. 14. There is a beautiful picture in my father's study. The picture is on the wall to the left of the window.
My aunt's flat
My aunt's flat is in a new house. There is a living room, a bedroom, a study, a bathroom and a kitchen in the flat. The bedroom is a large room with two windows. The room is light as the windows are large. There are white curtains on the windows. There are two beds with large pillows on them. There are small tables near the beds. There are lamps on them. To the left of the door there is a dressing table with a mirror on it. There is a low chair at the dressing table. There are several pictures on the pale green walls. There is a thick carpet on the floor. The carpet is dark green. The room is very cozy.
1. There is a park behind the hospital. There are (some) beautiful trees in the park. 2. There is a good film on TV this evening. I am going to watch it. 3. There is a library between the school and the bank. There are (some) English and German books in this library. 4. There is a sofa in the corner of the room.
5. There are (some) cushions on the sofa. 6. There are (some) books on the shelf. Give me a book, please. 7. Look into the refrigerator. What can you see on the shelves? — There is (some) butter in the butter dish. There is (some) sausage, but there is no cheese. There are (some) eggs and (some) apples. There is an orange, a lemon, and (some) jam in a little vase. 8. There is (some) juice in this cup. May I drink the juice? 9. There ere (some) girls in the yard, but I can see no boys. Where are the boys? — Oh, all the boys are playing football at the stadium. 10. There is a peculiar charm in her voice.
1. Where is the bus station? — The bus station is next to the gas station. 2. There are two pets in the house: a cat and a dog. 3. There is a TV antenna on the roof. 4. There is a mailbox between the building and the bus stop. 5. There is a big dog in front of the fireplace. 6. Do you speak English at work or at school? 7. She had a bad day today. 8. I have a colour TV set. The TV set is on a little table in the corner of the room. 9. There is a book, a pen, and (some) paper on my writing desk. 10. My brother is a teacher. He works at school. He has very good books. His books are in a big bookcase.
11. There is (some) tea in my glass. There is no tea in my friend's glass. His glass is empty.
12. Where is the coffee table in your room? — The coffee table is in front of the sofa. There is a cup on the coffee table and (some) newspapers. There is (some) coffee in the cup. 13. There are (some) photographs on the sofa. 14. There is a guitar on the chair near the piano.
What was the weather like yesterday?
1. Every day my brother and I get up at eight o'clock and walk to school. I like school. It's fun. My brother
loves football. Не hates homework. So he doesn't like to go to school. Will he go to work in the future? 2. My friend has to get up early in the morning because he goes to school. That's why he usually goes to bed early in the evening. 3. The weather was very bad in the morning yesterday. The sky was grey and it was raining. But in the middle of the day the weather began to change. The rain stopped and the sun appeared from behind the clouds. In the afternoon it was very warm. I did not want to stay at home and went into the yard. There were boys and girls in the yard. We played in the yard till late in the evening. When I came home, I drank tea, ate a sandwich and went to bed at once. I slept very well at night.
My brother and myself
1. My brother is a pupil. He goes to school. He goes to school in the morning. He has five or six lessons every day. In the afternoon he goes home. At home he does his homework. In the evening he reads books. He usually goes to bed at half past ten. At night he sleeps. 2. My father goes to work in the morning and comes home in the evening. 3. I get up at half past seven in the morning and go to bed at a quarter to eleven in the evening. 4. When does your mother leave home for work? — She leaves home for work at a quarter past eight. 5. When do you leave home for school? — I leave home for school at half past eight. 6. What do you do when you come home from school? — I do my homework, talk to my friends on the phone and go for walks. I often listen to music. I like jazz best.
1. We always go to the Russian Museum on Sunday. 2. On Saturday she usually goes to the Philharmonic.
3. In August he has his birthday. He is planning to have a nice party with his friends. 4. There are three rooms and a kitchen in our new flat. 5. My new dress is made of silk. 6. If you want to write something on the blackboard, you must have a piece of chalk. 7. Are there any pupils in the classroom? 8. I have a new English book. The book is very interesting. 9. There is a garden in front of our school. The garden is not large, but it is very nice. 10. May is the fifth month of the year. 11. Saturday is the sixth day of the week. 12. Sunday is a day off. 13. Today is the ninth of May. Anton has got a new mobile phone. He is going to make a phone call to his grandfather. 14. This is a nice place. In June we are going there for a holiday.
My friends' town
1. My friends live in a small town. It is a new town. The streets in the town are broad and straight. There are beautiful buildings in them. The town is very green, and so the air is fresh. There are (some) beautiful parks and gardens in the town. The people like to go there after work. In the evening you can hear the sounds of music from the parks. There are (some) schools, (some) libraries, a supermarket, a hospital, a theatre, (some) cinemas, (some) clinics and (some) kindergartens in the town. 2. This is a classroom. The classroom is large and light. 3. There is a picture on the wall. 4. What is the date today? It is the seventh of December. 5. The third lesson today is a lesson of English. 6. Pete, go to the blackboard. 7. After school I usually go home. 8. My father always comes from work late: at eight o'clock or at half past eight. But on Friday he comes home early: at half past four or at a quarter to five. On Saturday and on Sunday he does not go to work.
I go to school in the morning, so I get up early. I usually get up at a quarter past seven. I go to the bathroom, turn on the water and wash my face and hands. My father and mother also get up early in the morning. My mother works at an office. She is a typist. My father is a doctor. He works at a hospital. We have breakfast in the kitchen. We eat porridge and eggs. We drink tea. My father and mother leave home for work at half past eight. My father goes to the hospital, and my mother goes to the office. I don't leave home with my parents: the school where I study is near our house. I leave home for school at a quarter to nine. My granny stays at home and cooks dinner. I have lunch at school after the third lesson. My father and mother have lunch at work. When we come home, we have dinner.
1. Every day my husband goes to work, my son goes to school and I go to the institute. 2. There is a new school at the corner of our street. 3. My daughter came home from school on Monday and said to me, "There will be a parents' meeting on the tenth of February at six o'clock in the evening." 4. The teacher told us a very interesting story at the lesson. 5, When the bell rang, the pupils went into the classroom. 6. We are usually at school from nine o'clock in the morning till two o'clock in the afternoon. 7. We don't go to school on Sunday.
1. What do you do after breakfast? — After breakfast I go to school. 2. My granny likes to read a book after lunch. 3. People usually have breakfast in the
morning. They have dinner in the afternoon. In the evening people have supper. 4. There is a proverb: "After dinner sleep awhile, after supper walk a mile." 5. Who cooks dinner in your family? 6. Yesterday father told us a very interesting story at breakfast. 7. What did you have for lunch at school on Wednesday? — We had salad and tea. 8. My mother never has supper with the family because she does not like to eat in the evening. 9. When do you clean your teeth in the morning: before breakfast or after breakfast?
1. For breakfast I have coffee with milk and sugar. I have jam, too. There are different things on the dinner table. There is (some) bread, (some) butter and (some) ham. There are (some) cups and (some) glasses there. There is a jug on the table. The milk in the jug is hot. There is a teapot on the table. There is tea in the teapot. The tea is hot, too. There are (some) plates, (some) forks and (some) knives on the table. 2. The lamp is on the table. 3. There is a lamp on the table. 4. Is there a lamp on the table? 5. Is the lamp on the table? 6. Is there a clock on the wall? 7. There are two shelves on the wall. 8. Where are the shelves? — The shelves are on the wall. 9. They have a large flat. There are four rooms in the flat. 10. Is the newspaper on the table? 11. Is there a newspaper on the table? 12. There is (some) butter on the plate. 13. Where is the butter? — The butter is on a little plate. 14. There is (some) white and brown bread on the table.
1. Pete has a small family. He has a father and a mother. He has no brother, but he has a sister. His sister is a pupil. She is a good girl. She has many Russian books, but she has no English books. 2. There is
a writing desk in the room. The writing desk is good. There is a lamp on the writing desk. 3. My uncle has a large family. They are six in the family. 4. My father is an engineer. He works at a big factory. 5. We have a good library. Our books are in a big bookcase. 6. Is your sister married? 7. What do you do after breakfast? — I go to school. 8. When do you come home? — I come home at half past two. 9. Do you like to watch TV in the evening? 10. He watches television all day. I never do it. I can't watch TV very often. But tonight I can spend the evening in front of the box, because there is a very interesting film on. It is "My Fair Lady" with Rex Harrison and Audrey Hepburn. I love it.
1. My aunt and my uncle are doctors. They work at a hospital. They get up at seven o'clock in the morning. They go to bed at eleven o'clock. 2. I work in the morning and in the afternoon. I don't work in the evening. I sleep at night. 3. When do you leave home for school? — I leave home at a quarter past eight in the morning. 4. What does your mother do after breakfast? — She goes to work. 5. Is there a sofa in your living room? — Yes, there is a cozy little sofa in the living room. — Where is the sofa? — It is in the corner of the room to the left of the door. I like to sit on this sofa in front of the TV set in the evening. 6. There is a nice coffee table near the window. There are (some) newspapers on the coffee table. 7. There is (some) tea in the glass. 8. When do you watch TV? — I watch TV in the evening. We have a large colour TV set in our room. There is a beautiful vase on the TV set. There are (some) flowers in the vase. 9. I have a large writing desk in the study. There is (some) paper on the writing desk. My books and exercise books are on the writing desk, too.
My friend's flat
My friend's flat is very comfortable. There are three rooms in the flat: a living room, a study and a bedroom. The living room is not very large. The walls in the living room are blue. There are (some) pictures on the walls. There is a table in the middle of the room with some chairs around it. To the left of the door there is a sofa. Near the sofa there are two large armchairs. They are very comfortable. There is a piano in my friend's living room. The piano is to the right of the door. The bedroom and the study are small. The furniture in the flat is brown.
1. What colour is your new hat? — It's red. 2. Is there a refrigerator in your kitchen? 3. Where is the refrigerator in your kitchen? — It is in the corner of the kitchen. 4. There are (some) flowers in our living room. The flowers are in a beautiful vase. 5. I have (some) tea in my cup. 6. He has no coffee in his cup. 7. What book did you borrow from the library on Tuesday? 8. I have (some) books, exercise books and pens in my bag. 9. I am an engineer. I work at an office. I go to the office in the morning. As the office is far from the house I live in, I take a bus to get there. 10. What bus do you take to get to work? 11. Whose pen is this?
12. What colour is your new T-shirt? — It's white.
13. She is going to a music shop to buy a cassette. — What cassette is she going to buy? 14. That's the man whose computer was stolen last night.
Here is a large window. Through the window we can see a room. Opposite the window there is a door. On the door there is a curtain. In the corner of the room
there is a round table. On it we can see (some) books and a telephone. There is a bookshelf over the table. On the bookshelf we can see (some) newspapers and a book by Jack London. There are two pictures in the room. One picture is small, the other picture is very large. There are two bookcases in the room. The bookcases are full of books. There is a large sofa in the room. On the sofa we can see a bag. Whose bag is that? There is no bed in the room. On a small table near the window there are (some) flowers and a glass of water. In front of the window we can see an armchair.
1. English is a world language. 2. I study English. I attend English classes in the evening. On the days when I have no classes, I stay at home and do some work about the house. I have dinner with my family. After dinner I talk to the members of my family, watch TV and read books, newspapers and magazines. I go to bed late at night. 3. I am thirsty. Give me some water, please.
4. There is a book on the table. Give me the book, please.
5. I enjoy listening to music but I don't really like the music that that man plays on his guitar. 6. What did you have for lunch? — I only had a tuna sandwich. 7. He is a wonderful teacher. He teaches history.
1. When my grandfather was a young man, he studied physics. 2. Do you speak Spanish? 3. My uncle is a great specialist in biology. 4. Japanese is more difficult than French. 5. We listened to a very interesting lecture on English literature yesterday. 6. Yesterday at the lesson of geography the teacher told us (some) very interesting things about famous travellers. 7. My father speaks English and French, but he does not speak German. 8. We had a lesson of mathematics yesterday.
We wrote a paper in mathematics. The teacher said, "I shall correct the papers in the evening. Tomorrow you will know the results".
1. My name is Charlie. I come from a pretty big family. I have two brothers and a sister. I am the oldest and my sister is the youngest; she plays the violin really well and wants to be a professional musician. She has other hobbies, too, and she often goes swimming with her friends if the weather is nice. 2. Do you play the piano? 3. There is a big black piano in our living room. It is at the wall to the left of the door opposite the sideboard. My mother likes to play the piano. She often plays the piano in the evening. 4. Boys like to play football. 5. What do you do in the evening?
— I often play chess with my grandfather. 6. Where are the children? — Oh, they are out of doors. The weather is fine today. They are playing badminton in the yard. 7. What games does your sister like to play?
— She likes to play tennis. 8. Do you like to play the guitar? 9, What colour is your guitar?
An animal tale
It was a hot day. The sun was shining brightly in the blue sky. A wolf and a lamb met at a stream. The water in the stream was cool and clear. The wolf saw that lamb was fat and wanted to eat it. He began to shout, "You, fool, you are making the water dirty!" The lamb was afraid. It looked at the wolf and said in a thin voice, "But, Mr. Wolf, I cannot make the water dirty for you from the place where I am standing, because the stream runs from you to me." "Stop talking!" shouted the wolf in an angry voice. "I know you! I met you six months ago, and you were very rude to me." "You are wrong, Mr. Wolf," cried the lamb, "you
could not have met me six months ago: I am only four months old." "Never mind," said the wolf, "if it wasn't you, it was your brother." And with these words he seized the poor lamb and carried it into the wood.
1. Bill Robins was a very rich man. He was the richest man in the village. 2. Pete is the tallest boy in our class. Nick is the shortest boy, but he is very strong. He is stronger than many boys who are taller than he. I think Nick is the strongest boy in the class. 3. Granny often tells us long stories. Today her story was still longer. It was the longest story. She began telling it after dinner and finished only before supper. But the story was very interesting. I think it was the most interesting of Granny's stories. 4. Which was the most difficult exercise in the paper? 5. Which is the best season of the year? 6. February is the shortest month of the year. 7. Do you know the longest river in our country? 8. In May the days are longer than in April.
1. Moscow is situated on the Moscow River. The Moscow is a river that moves very slowly. There is a canal called the Moscow-Volga Canal which joins the Moscow to the Volga. The Volga runs into the Caspian Sea. 2, Several rivers run into the sea at New York. The most important is the Hudson River which empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Besides the Hudson there are two other rivers: the East River and the Harlem River. 3. In Siberia there are many long rivers: the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenissei, the Lena and the Amur.
4. The Altai Mountains are higher than the Urals.
5. There is a splendid view of Lake Geneva from this hotel. 6. My friends have travelled a lot. This year they are going to fly to the Canary Islands. 7. Which river
flows through London? — The Thames. 8. Of which country is Washington the capital? — The United States. 9. The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 10. Chicago is on Lake Michigan.
1. Russia occupies the eastern half of Europe and the northern third of Asia. 2. The climate of the northern part of Russia is severe. 3. This winter is a true Russian winter with hard frosts. 4. It is warm in the Crimea and the Caucasus. 5. Washington is the capital of the United States of America. 6. I want to go to New York some day. 7. The best way to know and understand the people of other countries is to meet them in their own homes. 8. Is Australia an island or a continent? 9. The Red Sea is between Africa and Asia. 10. There are seven continents on the Earth. 11. France is to the north of Italy.
1. The Neva flows into the Gulf of Finland. 2. The Pacific Ocean is very deep. 3. The Urals are not very high. 4. Kazbek is the highest peak of the Caucasus. 5. The Alps are covered with snow. 6. The Shetland Islands are situated to the north of Great Britain. 7. The USA is the largest country in America. 8. The Crimea is washed by the Black Sea. 9. Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. 10. Paris is the capital of France. 11. Lomonosov was born in a small village on the shore of the White Sea. 12. Gogol was born in the Ukraine in 1809. 13. The Caucasus separates the Black Sea from the Caspian Sea. 14. Europe and America are separated by the Atlantic Ocean. 15. The Baltic Sea is stormy in winter. 16. There are many small islands in the Pacific Ocean. 17. The North Sea separates the British Isles from Europe. 18. The Balkans are old mountains. 19. The Nile flows across the northeastern part of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. 20. Which are the highest mountains in Russia?
1. The Thames is a short river. 2. Russia is washed by the Arctic Ocean in the north. 3. Kiev is to the south of Moscow. 4. Europe is a continent. 5. Moscow is the capital of Russia. 6. Is Asia an island or a continent? 7. The Black Sea is in the south of our country. 8. The White Sea is in the north of our country. 9. This is a map of the world. Can you read map? What can you see on the map? What colour are the valleys on the map? 10. Petrov is an architect. He is an experienced architect. He is in the Far East. He has a wife. His wife is a typist. They have a son and a daughter. 11. The Philippines are situated to the southeast of Asia.
1. This is a pen. It is a good pen. The pen is black. It is on the table. 2. I have got a dog. The dog's name is Spot. He is a big grey dog. The dog is very strong. 3. My friend has a sister. Her name is Ann. The girl is a pupil. 4. We have a picture in the living room. The picture is very good. It is on the wall. 5. The Irish Sea is between Great Britain and Ireland. 6. There is a map on the wall of the classroom. It is a map of the world. There are many seas and lakes on the map. This is the Mediterranean Sea and that is the Red Sea. These are the Himalayas. They are the highest mountains in the world. 7. We live in St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg is a very large city. It is one of the largest cities in Russia. 8. My brother is a doctor. His flat is in the centre of the city. It is in a new house. There are three rooms
in the flat. The living room is the largest of all. It is a nice light room. There are (some) pictures on the walls. There is a round table in the middle of the room. There is a sofa at the wall with a large thick carpet in front of it. The study and the bedroom are small, but very comfortable.
1. Did you have a good time in the country? — Oh, yes. The weather was fine. We were out of doors from morning till night. We played football, volleyball and other games. We came home late at night and went to bed at once. 2. Look at the clock! It is a quarter past ten. Go to bed at once. 3. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 4. We spent last summer in the Ukraine, in a little village on the bank of a big river with very warm water. There was a wood on the other side of the river. We often went to the wood and gathered a lot of mushrooms. 5. My friend likes to play chess. He is ready to play chess all day long. He is the best chess player in our school.
1. Teckle comes from a very old country on the Nile. It is called Ethiopia. Ethiopia is a beautiful mountainous country. Teckle is a young man. He wants to become an engineer. He is very happy to be a student of St. Petersburg University. He spends a lot of time at the library reading and studying different subjects. Very often in the evening his new friends and he walk about the city talking about their native countries. 2. Galina lives in the Ukraine. She lives in a small village near Odessa. She is a librarian. She always has a lot of work. Galina wants to enter Moscow University and now she is preparing for the entrance exams.
3. My friend lives in America. He is a student. He studies history at Harvard University. 4. Every year, thousands of students come to Cambridge from overseas to study English. Ilse, a German student, graduated from Cambridge University two years ago.
When we want to write a letter, we take a piece of paper and a pen. We first write our address and the date in the right-hand corner. Then on the left-hand side we write a greeting. We may write, for instance, "My dear brother," "Dear Henry," etc., and then on the next line we begin the body of the letter. We must not forget to leave a margin on the left-hand side of the page. At the end of the letter we write "Yours," and then we sign our name. We put the letter into an envelope and close the envelope. On the envelope we write the name and address of the person who will receive it. We stick a stamp in the top right-hand corner, and then we post the letter.
A parable - притча
Once there lived a man who was very fond of gold. He used to say, "While I have my gold, I am the happiest man in the world." And so all his life he saved money. One day he was travelling in the desert of North Africa. He lost his way. He had no food or water. He was almost dying of hunger. He was so weak that he could not walk, he could only crawl. The heat was terrible. There were only stones and sand around. Just then he saw a bag lying on the sand. He hoped that he would find food in it and water, too. He crawled up to the bag and opened it. He saw that the bag was full of gold. What is the use of gold to a hungry man in a desert? He left the bag on the hot sand, crying bitterly, "I am the most unhappy man in the world."
1. Let's go to the shop. I must buy (some) bread and milk. 2. I was at the cinema yesterday. — What film did you see? — Oh, I saw a very good film. I think it is the best film of the year. 3. Do you often go to the theatre? — No, I don't. I like to go to the theatre, but I am very busy. I work from morning till night. I even have no time to play the piano. 4. Oleg has a lot of interesting books at home. 5. A lot of tourists from different countries come to St. Petersburg. They want to see one of the most beautiful cities in the world. 6. My new friend said to me, "I am a student in the first year at Harvard." 7. We went to the cinema in the evening. 8. What foreign languages does your father speak? — He speaks English. He studied English at school. 9. I am interested in history. 10. We played tennis at the lesson of physical training yesterday. We had a good time. 11. Did you go for a walk yesterday? — No, we didn't. The weather was bad, and we went to the cinema. 12. What are your friends doing? — Mary is playing the piano. Tom and Nick are playing chess.
A funny story
Three men came to New York for a holiday. They came to a very large hotel and took a room there. Their room was on the forty-fifth floor. In the evening the friends went to the theatre and came back to the hotel very late. "I am very sorry," said the clerk of the hotel, "but the lifts do not work tonight. If you don't want to walk up to your room, we shall make beds for you in the hall." "No, no," said one of the friends, "no, thank you. We don't want to sleep in the hall. We shall walk up to our room." Then he turned to his friends and said, "It is not easy to walk up to the forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On the way to the room I shall tell you some jokes; then you, Andy, will
sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories." So they began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs. At last they came to the thirty-sixth floor. They were tired and decided to have a rest. "Well," said Tom, "now it is your turn, Peter. After all the jokes, I would like to hear a sad story. Tell us a long and interesting story with a sad end." "The story which I am going to tell you," said Peter, "is sad enough. We left the key to our room in the hall."
A funny story
Swift, a famous English writer, was travelling one day on horseback with his servant. The weather was bad, it was raining, and the roads were muddy. In the evening the two men came to an inn. Before going to bed Swift told his servant to clean his boots. But the servant was lazy and did not do it. In the morning Swift asked the servant why he had not cleaned the boots. "What's the use cleaning the boots now?" said the servant. "The roads are muddy, and the boots will soon be dirty again." "All right," said the writer. "Let's go. We must continue the journey." "But I haven't had breakfast," said the displeased servant. "Well, what's the use giving you breakfast now?" said Swift. "You will soon be hungry again."
A funny story
In a small town in the East there was once a man who had a parrot. The parrot was taught to say the words: "There is no doubt about it." It used to repeat these words, all day long. Every time it was asked a question, it gave the same answer, "There is no doubt about it." One day the man decided to sell the bird; so he put the parrot into the cage and went to the market with it. "Twenty pounds for a very clever parrot!" he
cried. A man who was passing by heard this and turned to the parrot. "Are you worth twenty pounds?" he asked. "There is no doubt about it!" answered the parrot. "What a clever parrot!" said the man and bought the bird. He took the parrot home and invited his friends to look at the clever bird. The friends came and looked at the parrot and talked to it. Now you must know that the man was not rich. In fact, he was often short of money. So a week or two later, sitting in an armchair and looking at the parrot, he said, "What a fool I was to throw away such a lot of money!" "There is no doubt about it!" cried the parrot. And this time the bird was right.
A funny story
A train stopped at a little station. A passenger looked out of the window of a train carriage and saw a woman selling cakes. The man had not had breakfast in the morning. He was hungry and wanted to buy a cake. The woman was standing rather far from the carriage. The man did not want to go and buy a cake himself because he was afraid to miss the train. He saw a boy who was walking along the platform near the carriage. He called the boy and asked him, "How much does a cake cost?" "Three pence, sir," answered the boy. The man gave him a sixpence and said, "Bring me a cake, and with the other threepence buy a cake for yourself." The boy took the money and went to the woman. A few minutes later the boy returned. He was eating a cake. He gave the man three pence change and said, "The woman had only one cake, sir."
An animal tale
A crow once said to her children, "It's high time for you to look for food." With these words she turned them out of the nest and took them to the field. But
the crow's children did not like the idea. "We'd rather go bnck to the nest," they cried. "It's so nice when you bring food to us!" "Indeed!" said their mother. "You are big enough to feed yourselves. My mother turned me out of the nest when I was much younger, and I had to take care of myself." "But people will kill us with their guns," said the young crows. "No fear of that," answered their mother. "Before people shoot, they take aim, and that takes time. When you see a man raising a gun to his face, you must just fly away." "That's a simple thing to do," said the children, "but supposing a man or a boy wants to throw a stone at us: in such a case he won't have to take aim." "Well, then he will have to bend down to pick up a stone," said the crow. "But what if he carries a stone in his hand ready?" "Why, if you are clever enough to think of that," said the mother, "you are clever enough to take care of yourselves." And she flew away leaving the young crows in the field.
Russia. The climate
Russia is such a large country that when it is night in one part of the country, it is day in another part, when it is winter in one part of the country, it is already summer in another. Imagine it is the beginning of May now. It is spring in St. Petersburg. The weather is fine. It is still cool at night, but it is quite warm in the afternoon. It sometimes rains, but the rain is warm, too. The ground is covered with soft green grass, and the trees are covered with green leaves. But while it is spring in St. Petersburg, it is still winter in the north of our country at the beginning of May. Here it is cold and sometimes frosty, the rivers and seas are covered with ice. The ice does not melt in some places even in summer. The ground is covered with deep snow. In the south of our country the weather is quite different. It is already summer in the Caucasus. It is much
warmer than in St. Petersburg. It is sometimes even hot. The sky is usually cloudless and it seldom rains here. People wear summer clothes.
1. Is this an interesting book? Is this a very interesting book? Is this the very interesting book you have spoken about so much? It is such an interesting book. Is it the same book you have recommended to us? 2. She is a teacher. She is a good teacher. She is a teacher of our school. She is a teacher of English. Here is the teacher, ask her about the questions which interest you. 3. There is a word in the text which I cannot understand. There is a very difficult word, too, which I cannot pronounce. Here is the word I was looking up in the dictionary. This word is an adverb. 4. The first men were vegetarians. 5. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in the 19th century. 6. Columbus, who discovered America, was a native of Genoa. 7. Rome is an ancient town. 8. Ireland, Scotland and Wales are parts of the United Kingdom. 9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia? — The Pacific.
10. Last summer I visited Switzerland and Germany.
11. Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands.
A fairy tale
Once there lived a king. His name was Midas. He had a little daughter. They lived in a beautiful palace with a wonderful garden around it. Now the king was very fond of gold. He loved gold more than anything else in the world. One day, when the king was looking at his gold, a young man appeared before him. "You are a very rich man, Midas," said the young man. "Yes," said the king, "but I would like to be richer. I would like to have a golden touch. I want everything that I touch to turn into gold." The young man was a magician, and he gave the king the golden touch which he wanted to have. The king was very happy. He touched a table, and the table became gold. He went into the garden. There were beautiful roses in the garden. He touched the roses, and they also became gold. The king's daughter, who loved the roses very much, saw it and began to cry. "Don't cry, dear daughter", said the king and touched his daughter's head. The next moment the girl turned into a beautiful gold statue.
Признаки основных форм в глагольной системе английских времен.Грамматическая категория времени передает отношение действия к моменту речи. Соответственно, глагол может иметь формы настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времени. Название любого из двенадцати английских времен начинается с одного из трех слов: Present, Past, Future. Есть четыре вида настоящего, четыре вида прошедшего и четыре вида будущего, которые известны как Simple, Progressive, Perfect и Perfect Progressive. Особое внимание учащимся следует обратить на ключевые слова, так как именно они помогают соориентироваться, какой вид глагола в каждом времени следует использовать, чтобы точно передать смысл высказывания.
Настоящее время (PRESENT SIMPLE):
do, does в вопросах;
в утвердительных предложениях - окончание -s в 3-м лице ед. числа.
every day - каждый день,
usually - обычно,
often - часто,
always - всегда,
never - никогда,
sometimes - иногда.
Таблицa Present Simple Tense. Cпряжение глагола to work
Прошедшее время (PAST SIMPLE):
did в вопросах;
в утвердительных предложениях - окончание -ed у правильных глаголов,
неправильные глаголы берутся из 2-го столбца таблицы неправильных глаголов.
Ключевые слова, устанавливающие связь между видами глаголов в русском и английском языках:
yesterday - вчера,
a minute ago - минуту назад,
two days (hours, months, years) ago
- два дня (часа, месяца, года) назад,
last week (month, year) - на прошлой неделе, (в прошлом месяце, в прошлом году).
Таблицa Past Simple Tense. Cпряжение глагола to work - правильные глаголы.
Будущее время (FUTURE SIMPLE):
Will в вопросительных, отрицательных и утвердительных предложениях, для всех лиц и чисел, основа смыслового глагола без изменений.
Simple Tense. Cпряжение глагола to work.
Признаки PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS):
1. to be;
2. окончание смыслового глагола -ing во всех формах.
Настоящее время, длительный вид (PRESENT PROGRESSIVE):
Личные формы am, is, are в вопросительных, отрицательных и утвердительных предложениях,
к основе смыслового глагола добавляется -ing.
now - сейчас,
at the moment - в данный момент,
Look! - Смотри!
Continuous Tense. Cпряжение глагола to work.
Прошедшее время, длительный вид (PAST PROGRESSIVE):
Формы глагола to be в прошедшем времени:
was для единственного числа,
were - для множественного,
к основе смыслового глагола добавляется -ing.
Слова, устанавливающие связь между временами глаголов в английском и русском языке:
when I came - когда я пришел,
while you were reading - пока ты читал,
yesterday at 5 pm - вчера в 5 часов вечера.
Continuous Tense. Cпряжение глагола to work.
Будущее время, длительный вид (FUTURE PROGRESSIVE):
Will be для всех лиц и чисел, основа смыслового глагола + -ing.
Ключевые слова, устанавливающие связь между видами глаголов в русском и английском языках:
tomorrow at 7 am - завтра в семь часов утра,
when you come (в придаточных времени и условия - настоящее время вместо будущего!) - когда вы придете,
while you are reading - пока ты будешь читать.
Continuous Tense. Cпряжение глагола to write.
1. to have;
2. окончание - ed добавляется к основе правильных глаголов,
неправильные глаголы берутся из 3-го столбца таблицы неправильных глаголов.
Настоящее время, совершенный вид (PRESENT PERFECT):
Формы глагола to have в настоящем времени:
has для 3-го лица единственного числа,
have - для всех остальных лиц и чисел,
already — уже
not yet — нет еще
just - только что
ever — когда-либо
Perfect Tense. Cпряжение глагола to write.