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Ю. Б. Голицынский. Грамматика.
Это новое издание известного пособия будет одинаково полезно и школьникам, и взрослым - всем, кто хочет овладеть в совершенстве английским языком, занимаясь самостоятельно. |
Пособие содержит практические упражнения различной степени сложности по основным разделам школьного курса английского языка.
Ответы помогут проверить правильность выполнения упражнений, систематизировать и углубить знания школьной программы по английскому языку.
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Упражнение 50In a small town in the East there once was a man who had a parrot. The parrot was taught to say the words: "There is no doubt about it." It used to repeat these words, all day long. Every time it was asked aquestion, it gave the same answer, "There is no doubt about it." One day the man decided to sell the bird; so he put the parrot into the cage and went to the market with it. "Twenty pounds for a very clever parrot!" he cried. A man who was passing by heard this and turned to the parrot. "Are you worth twenty pounds?" he asked. "There is no doubt about it!" answered the parrot. "What a clever parrot!" said the man and bought the bird. He took the parrot home and invited his friends to look at the clever bird. The friends came and looked at the parrot and talked to it. Now you must know that the man was not rich. In fact, he was often short of money. So a week or two later, sitting in an armchair and looking at the parrot, he said, "What a fool I was to throw away such a lot of money!" "There is no doubt about it!" cried the parrot. And this time the bird was right.
Упражнение 51A train stopped at a little station. A passenger looked out of the window of a train carriage and saw a woman selling cakes. The man had not had breakfast in the morning. He was hungry and wanted to buy a cake. The woman was standing rather far from the carriage. The man did not want to go and buy a cake himself because he was afraid to miss the train. He saw a boy who was walking along the platform near the carriage. He called the boy and asked him, "How much does a cake cost?" "Threepence, sir," answered the boy. The man gave him a sixpence and said, "Bring me a cake, and with the other threepence buy a cake for yourself." The boy took the money and went to the woman. A few minutes later the boy returned. He was eating a cake. He gave the man threepence change and said, "The woman had only one cake, sir."
Упражнение 52A crow once said to her children, "It's high time for you to look for food." With these words she turned them out of the nest and took them to the field. But the crow's children did not like the idea. "We'd rather go back to the nest," they cried. "It's so nice when you bring food to us!" "Indeed!" said their mother. "You are big enough to feed yourselves. My mother turned me out of the nest when I was much younger, and I had to take care of myself." "But people will kill us with their guns," said the young crows. "No fear of that," answered their mother. "Before people shoot, they take aim, and that takes time. When you see a man raising a gun to his face, you must just fly away." "That's a simple thing to do," said the children, "but supposing a man or a boy wants to throw a stone at us: in such a case he won't have to take aim." "Well, then he will have to bend down to pick up a stone," said the crow. "But what if he carries a stone in his hand ready?" "Why, if you are clever enough to think of that," said the mother, "you are clever enough to take care of yourselves." And she flew away leaving the young crows in the field.
Упражнение 53Russia is such a large country that when it is night in one part of the country, it is day in another part, when it is winter in one part of the country, it is already summer in another. Imagine it is the beginning of May now. It is spring in St Petersburg. The weather is fine. It is still cool at night, but it is quite warm in the afternoon. It sometimes rains, but the rain is warm, too. The ground is covered with soft green grass, and the trees are covered with green leaves. But while it is spring in St Petersburg, it is still winter in the north of our country at the beginning of May. Here it is cold and sometimes frosty, the rivers and seas are covered with ice. The ice does not melt in some places even in summer. The ground is covered with deep snow. In the south of our country the weather is quite different. It is already summer in the Caucasus. It is much warmer than In St Petersburg. It is sometimes even hot. The sky is usually cloudless and it seldom rains here. People wear summer clothes. They enjoy gardening. You should see their gardens in the summertime — they are beautiful.
Упражнение 541. Is this an interesting book? Is this a very interesting book? Is this the very interesting book you have spoken about so much? It is such an interesting book. Is it the same book you have recommended to us? 2. She is a teacher. She is a good teacher. She is a teacher of our school. She is a teacher of English. Here is the teacher, ask her about the questions which interest you. 3. There is a word in the text which I cannot understand. There is a very difficult word, too, which I cannot pronounce. Here is the word I was looking up in the dictionary. This word is an adverb. 4. The first men were vegetarians. 5. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in the 19th century. 6. Columbus, who discovered America, was a native of Genoa. 7. Rome is an ancient town. 8. Ireland, Scotland and Wales are parts of the United Kingdom. 9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia? — The Pacific. 10. Last summer I visited Switzerland and Germany. 11. Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands. The Hague is a city of the Netherlands where that country's government is based. 12. It was such a shock. 13. It's high time to take a break.
Упражнение 55Once there lived a king. His name was Midas. He had a little daughter. They lived in a beautiful palace with a wonderful garden around it. Now the king was very fond of gold. He loved gold more than anything else in the world. One day, when the king was looking at his gold, a young man appeared before him. "You are a very rich man, Midas," said the young man. "Yes," said the king, "but I would like to be richer. I would like to have a golden touch. I want everything that I touch to turn into gold." The young man was a magician, and he gave the king the golden touch which he wanted to have. The king was very happy. He touched a table, and the table became gold. He went into the garden. There were beautiful roses in the garden. He touched the roses, and they also became gold. The king's daughter, who Loved the roses very much, saw it and began to cry. "Don't cry, dear daughter", said the king and touched his daughter's head. The next moment the girl turned into a beautiful gold statue.
Упражнение 56A group of farmers were sitting in a village house, and among other things they began talking about echoes. One of the farmers said that there was a wonderful echo in the field near his farm where there was a large group of trees. All the other farmers said that they would like to hear the echo, and the farmer invited them to come the next afternoon. But the fact was that the farmer did not really have the echo he had told the other farmers about. So when he came home, he sent for the son of the cook and told him to go to the field, hide himself among the trees and imitate everything that was said. The next day the other farmers came, and the farmer took them to the field to listen to the wonderful echo. When they were in the field, he shouted at the top of his voice, "Are you there?" The answer came back, "Yes, I've been here for two hours!"
Упражнение 57It was a nice summer day. The weather was fine, the sun was shining in the blue sky, the air was fragrant with the smell of grass and flowers. A dog which was running about the streets of a little town saw a butcher's stall with a lot of meat. The dog cautiously approached the stall and, when the butcher turned away to talk to a woman, quickly seized a big piece of meat and ran away with it. On the way home the dog had to cross a stream by a narrow bridge. As he was crossing, he looked down into the stream and saw his reflection in the water. He thought it was another dog with another piece of meat. He snapped at the reflection and dropped his own piece of meat. That's how the dog was punished for greediness.
Упражнение 58On Sunday our family went to the country. We got up at sunrise and quickly had breakfast. After breakfast we left home. There is a little village not far from St Petersburg where we have friends. We went there by train. We all had a great time in the country. The weather was nice, the sky was blue and the sun was shining. We stayed out of doors all day long. We played volleyball and tennis. At sunset we stopped playing. There was a beautiful red and golden sunset that evening. We sat watching the sunset. So we returned to town late in the evening. When we came home, we had supper and went to bed at once.
Упражнение 591. Look at the sky. It is covered with dark clouds. Let's hurry home. 2. It was very pleasant to live in the country in summer. The weather was nice and it seldom rained. Summer is a fine season. 3. How lovely the night is! There are no clouds in the sky and the air is so fresh. 4. When spring comes, the sun shines brighter, the snow melts, the days become longer. 5. Winter is a good time for sports. 6. On Sunday my friend and I usually go to the country. We ski, skate, play snowballs and have a very good time. 7. The fog is so dense that it is difficult to walk. 8. My friend is a very good chess player. 9. In summer we lived in the country and went up to town by train. 10. Tomorrow is Sunday. If it is too hot in town, we shall go to the country. And on Monday we shall come back. 11. Autumn is the most beautiful season of the year. 12. Winter isn't a depressing season.
Упражнение 60Last Tuesday evening, when the whole family was at home, a burglar came into the house and stole $500! When we discovered the theft, we called the police. Because the burglar's shoes were wet and dirty, the detective could follow his footprints. Here is what the burglar did. He broke in through the front door. It was locked, so he broke the lock. Dad was reading a newspaper in the study near the front door. He was facing the big window, so he didn't see the man, and because he was also listening to loud music, he didn't hear him. It was raining and there was thunder, so there was a lot of noise outside, too. The burglar crossed the hall to the kitchen. Mum was making a pot of tea, so he didn't go into the kitchen. The man went back across the hall and looked into the dining room. No one was in there. He looked through all the drawers and found $300. But this wasn't enough. He came out of the dining room and went upstairs. Tom was doing his homework in his bedroom and listening to his Walkman. The burglar went past Tom's room. Sally was taking a shower and singing at the top of her lungs. He went into the TV room. He opened everything but found nothing. Then he left the TV room, went back down the stairs and into the kitchen. Mum was sitting in the living room with Dad. The burglar was very quiet! He found $200 in an old teapot on the top shelf of the left kitchen cupboard. Then the man went out through the French window in the dining room. It wasn't locked, so it was easy to get out. The police couldn't believe it! We never heard the burglar!
Упражнение 611. My brother read to me an extract from the book which he had brought the day before. The main character of the book is a young doctor who went to a distant village in Siberia. 2. The weather was very bad in October. We didn't enjoy the very cool autumn last year. 3. When he came into the room, he saw a man sitting on the sofa. He at once remembered that it was the man he had seen at the theatre the night before. 4. Yesterday I saw the film you are speaking about. 5. He took a taxi and gave the address to the driver. 6. Tower Bridge is the first bridge over the Thames coming from the sea. Built in 1894 it is a suspension bridge. The central portion of it can be opened to admit ships to the docks in this part of the river. When a ship arrives, the traffic is stopped and the great bridge opens in the centre: its two halves go up into the air and the ship passes through.
Упражнение 62Once a Frenchman was travelling in Sweden. He stopped at a hotel in a little Swedish town. It was evening, the man was tired, so he went to bed at once. In the morning he had breakfast in the hotel restaurant. After breakfast he went for a walk. He walked along the streets of the town, visited a museum and (some) shops. Presently he felt hungry and dropped into a cafe for lunch. He sat down at a table, called a waiter and ordered mushrooms. But the Frenchman did not know Swedish and the waiter did not know French. Nobody in the cafe could speak French. Then the Frenchman took a piece of paper and a pencil and drew the picture of a mushroom. The waiter looked at the picture and left the room at once. Five minutes later he returned with an umbrella. What a funny story!
Упражнение 63A guide was once showing a group of rich American tourists the places of interest in a little town in the south of Italy. He took the tourists from place to place, but as the town was small, after a while the guide could not think of anything that might be of interest to the Americans. "Tell us something unusual about the weather or the climate of this place," said an American lady to the guide. "What can I tell her about our climate?" thought the guide. Then he had an idea. "Well," he said, "there is one unusual thing about our climate. One can easily notice that the wind here always blows from the west." "Really?" said the lady in a surprised tone, "What an interesting thing!" But another tourist said, "You must be wrong. Look! The wind is blowing from the east now." At the first moment the guide did not know what to say. But he was a clever man and soon found a way out. "Oh," he said, "Is that so? Well, then it must be the west wind coming back."
Упражнение 64The English king Richard the Lionheart was a tall, strong man. He was very proud of his strength and liked to show people how strong he was. Once, as he was riding on horseback in the countryside, his horse lost a shoe. Luckily he was not far from a village and soon he found a blacksmith. "Give me a good horseshoe," he said to the man. The blacksmith gave the king a horseshoe. Richard took it in his hand and broke it in two. "This horseshoe is no good," he said, "give me abetter one." The blacksmith did not say a word. He gave the king another horseshoe, but Richard broke it, too. The blacksmith gave him a third shoe. This time Richard was satisfied and ordered the blacksmith to shoe his horse. When the work was done, Richard offered the man a coin. The blacksmith took the coin between his fingers and broke it in two. Now it wae Richard's turn to be surprised. He took a larger coin out of his pocket and handed it to the blacksmith. The man broke it, too, saying, "This coin is no good, give me a better one." Richard smiled and gave the man a gold coin.
Упражнение 65Упражнение 65 In the fifteenth century people knew only three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. They knew nothing about such a big continent as America. The man who discovered America was born in 1451 in Italy. His name was Christopher Columbus. He became a sailor at an early age. Knowing that the Earth was round, he decided to reach India sailing to the west. He tried to arrange an expedition, but did not have money, and nobody wanted to help him. At last the king of Spain gave him money for the expedition. He set sail in 1492. The voyage was very dangerous and difficult. On the 12th of October his ship reached land. When they landed, they saw strange trees and flowers. Olive-skinned men and women gathered around the sailors and looked at them with great surprise. Columbus was sure that he had discovered a new way to India. Some time later another sailor reached America. The name of the sailor was Amerigo Vespucci. He understood that it was a new continent.
Упражнение 66Упражнение 66 1. He's looking for a plain shirt, but all the shirts are striped. 2. I'm looking for a pair of black pants. 3. She's looking for a blouse. Polka-dot blouses are very popular this summer. 4. I bought a new hat yesterday. The shop assistant said it was the latest style. 5. I want to ask you to accompany me to the shop. I must buy a dress. 6. Where did you buy this overcoat? — I bought it at a big store in Nevsky Prospect on Tuesday. 7. My sister bought a blue hat on Wednesday. The colour suits her very nicely as she has got blue eyes. 8. I must buy a pair of new gloves. 9. Where is the shoe department? — It is on the third floor. 10. I think the coat is a little tight. 11. We came to a big tailor's shop to find out if we could have a business suit made to order. 12. I don't like the hat you have chosen. The colour is not becoming to you. 13. Here is the department of ready-made clothes. Let's go in and see if we can buy a nice pair of trousers for you. 14. I am going to give him a silk tie as a birthday present. He likes ties.
Упражнение 67Упражнение 67 1. Everyone in our country knows Lomonosov, the founder of the first Russian university. 2. Nekrasov, a famous Russian poet, described the life of Russian peasants. 3. I don't want to miss the concert which will take place at the Philharmonic on the 15th of April. 4. He graduated from the University of London six years ago. Now he is a scientist. And though he is a young scientist, his name is well known. 5. My aunt is a teacher of physics. 6. Yesterday I read a book by Dickens, a famous English writer. 7. I am sorry, I don't know the way to the nearest cafe. I am a stranger here myself. 8. The town I was born in is on the Volga. 9. Who is the author of this book? 10. A quarter of an hour was left before the beginning of the concert. We entered the hall and saw a group of pupils of our school. We joined them.
Упражнение 68Упражнение 68 1. During the vacation I attended some interesting lectures. I remember two of the lectures best of all. They were about Russian music. 2. I am sure he won't stay in town for the vacation. 3. Two weeks are left before the end of the school year. The examinations are coming. On the first of June we shall take an exam in literature. 4. Today is my day off. I am going to spend the day in the country. 5. My brother brought a new book yesterday. When I looked at the title, I was very glad: it was the book which I had wanted to get for along time. 6. My sister is acquainted with the actor who played the leading part in the play you saw yesterday. 7. What river is the longest in Europe? — Why, what a strange question to ask! Any schoolboy can tell you that it is the Volga. 8. I am afraid you will have a lot of trouble with this business. 9. The day was not bright yesterday. The sky was covered with clouds. 10. What a pity! I can't come to the party tonight.
Упражнение 69I knew a man who had travelled very much in his life. He had visited many countries in the east and in the west. He loved children and often told them interesting stories. I remember some of the stories which he told me. One of the stories was about an adventure he had had in London. He was a young man at that time and was interested in the history of architecture. One day he visited one of the towers of the Houses of Parliament. He came out on to the balcony of the tower and began to look at the ornaments on the walls. Then he climbed up on the roof. Suddenly a man came running to him and seized him by the arm. He began shouting something in English, but my friend knew only a few words of English and did not understand him. The Englishman called a policeman. The fact was that he thought that the Russian tourist wanted to kill himself by jumping from the top of the tower. Later, when everything became clear, they laughed a lot over it.
Упражнение 70One day a father and his rich family took his son on a trip to the country with the firm purpose of showing him how poor people can be. They spent a day and anight at the farm of a very poor family. When they returned from their trip, the father asked his son, "How was the trip?" "Very good. Dad!" "Did you see how poor people can be?" the father asked. "Yeah!" "And what did you learn?" The son replied: "I saw that we have a dog at home, and they have four. We have a pool that reaches to the middle of the garden; they have a river that has no end. We have imported lamps in the garden; they have the stars. Our patio reaches to the front yard; they have a whole horizon." When a little boy finished speaking, his father was speechless. His son added, 'Thanks, Dad, for showing me how poor we are."
Упражнение 71The room in which the boys were fed was a large stone hall, with a copper at one end, out of which the cook took gruel which he put into each bowl at mealtimes. Each boy had one portion of gruel and no more, and on Sundays they had two ounces and a quarter of bread besides. The bowls never needed washing — the boys polished them with their spoons till they shone again. At last the boys got so wild with hunger that one boy said he was afraid he would some night eat the hoy who slept next to him. The boys believed him. A council was held. Oliver was chosen to go up to the cook that evening after supper and ask for more. The evening arrived, and the boys took their places. The cook stood at the copper. The gruel was served out and disappeared. Then Oliver rose from the table and advancing to the cook, said in a weak voice, "Please, sir, I want some more." The cook was a healthy man, but he turned pale. "What?" said he in a trembling voice. The man could not believe his ears.
Упражнение 72Many years ago a London theatre performed a play in which there was a great storm on the sea. In those days theatres had no machines. That is why the manager engaged several boys to make the waves of the sea. They jumped up and down under a big piece of sea-green cloth. The boys received a shilling a night for their work. They worked for several weeks. But then the manager decided to pay them less money — only sixpence a night. So the boys decided to go on strike. During a performance, when the storm began, when the wind blew and it was raining, the sea remained calm — there was not a single wave on it. The angry manager lifted one corner of the "sea" and said to the boys, "Make waves, boys, make waves!" "Do you want waves for a shilling or for sixpence?" asked a boy in aloud voice. "Oh, for a shilling," answered the manager. The boys began to jump up and down, and did it so well, that the storm looked quite real.
Упражнение 73In the old days it was necessary for all the parts of a city to be close together, in order that a defensive wall might surround it, and the streets, therefore, were made as narrow as possible. Many European cities began with walls round them. But in America there was little need for defensive walls, and that's why many American cities have been built on a regular plan, modified a little according to natural surroundings. The streets in American cities, instead of having names, are numbered, and so when one has once understood the plan of an American city, it is very easy to find one's way from one part of it to another. The old part of New York lies in the southern half of Manhattan Island, and there the streets are narrow and twisted, as in the towns of the Old World. But the rest of the streets, with but few exceptions, all run in straight lines. There is one street in the city, however, that does not follow a straight line. And that is Broadway, New York's most famous street. It starts within sight of the dancing waters of the harbour and runs between tall skyscrapers in the northwestern direction. This great street is the longest in the world.
Упражнение 74Africa is a very large continent lying to the south of Europe and to the southwest of Asia to which it is joined by the Isthmus of Suez. Less than one hundred years ago men knew almost nothing of the middle of the continent. Travellers from Europe made long journeys into the centre but they met with terrible difficulties, for the continent is covered with forests full of fearful wild animals. Some travellers died of hunger or thirst or strange illnesses, others were killed by lions, still others by natives; but nevertheless bold men were found ready to go along rivers into the heart of Africa. The merchants who came from European countries had much to sell, and here were millions of people ready to buy; here was a country, the richness of which was unimaginable.
Упражнение 75Robert Burns, the son of a small farmer in Ayrshire, was born on the 25th of January, 1759. His parents were poor, so Burns did not get a good education. He worked hard as a ploughboy. He was fond of reading and always had a ballad book before him at dinner. After the death of his father Robert and his brother and sisters took over the farm together.
Working in the fields Burns wrote many wonderful songs. However, things became so bad on the farm, that the poet decided to go to Jamaica hoping to get a job on a plantation there. Luckily some friends helped Burns to publish a book of poems. The book was noticed and praised highly.
In 1786 Burns went to Edinburgh, and his book of poems unlocked the doors of rich Edinburgh houses to a peasant with such a wonderful talent. In 1788 he married Jean Armour and spent a peaceful and happy year. The rest of his life story is a tale of the poet's hardships. The hard life ruined the poet's health, and on the 21st of July, 1796, he died at the age of thirty-seven.
Упражнение 76"Is there a post office near the house you live in?"
"Yes, there is. Go to the corner of the street along which trams run. Then turn to the left and walk a short distance down the street. Do not cross the street, of course. You will see a sign over a door which says 'Post and Telegraph Office'."
"Thank you very much. I am sure I shall find it without difficulty. I must buy (some) stamps, send a telegram and ask whether they receive parcels there. I want to send a parcel to an old friend. It will be her birthday in a week. Perhaps you can tell me where I can find a shop that sells nice things that one can give as presents?"
"Yes, certainly. There's a very good shop not far from here. You can easily walk there in a few minutes. Go straight down the street that you will see directly in front of you when you come out of the post office till you come to a wide street along which buses and trolleybuses run. Then turn to the left again and almost immediately you will come to a beautiful shop with big windows full of all sorts of things. I am sure you will find nice presents there."
Упражнение 77Until near the end of the 19th century it was the law in England that if a man was unable to pay a debt, even a small one, he could be imprisoned. This imprisonment might very well be for life, as it was impossible for the people in prison to work at their ordinary occupations and so make money to repay the sum they had borrowed. If they had friends who could bring them materials to work with, they might work with their hands, sewing or making boots, for instance.
The great English novelist Charles Dickens knew a great deal about the debtors' prisons from personal experience, for when he was about ten, his father was imprisoned for debt, and the whole family had to go and live with him in the prison because they had nowhere else to live. The mother and the children, however, could leave the place when they wished; but at ten o'clock every evening the great gates were shut for the night, and no one could leave or enter until morning.
Dickens described the life in the debtors' prisons in some of his novels. It was largely because of Dickens' sharp criticism that the English Government was finally forced to do away with debtors' prisons.
Упражнение 78At the beginning of the 19th century a little boy was born in the family of John Dickens, a clerk at an office in Portsmouth, and was named Charles. He had a sister who was older than himself, and there were several other children in the family.
When Charles was seven, he was sent to school. He was not a strong child. He did not like to play cricket or football and spent all his free time reading. In 1821 the family went to London, and little Charles left behind him the happiest years of his childhood.
His father was in money difficulties, and the family became poorer and poorer. The boy had to give up his studies. Mr Dickens was put into a debtors' prison. Little Charles learned to know all the horrors and cruelty of a large capitalist city. He had to go to work at a blacking factory. He worked there from morning till night. When his father came out of prison, Charles was sent to school for some time.
Soon he got work as a clerk. Then he learned stenography and became a reporter in Parliament. In 1836 at the age of 24 Charles Dickens published his first book. It was a collection of stories. The title of the book was "Sketches by Boz." These were followed by "Pickwick Papers" and "Oliver Twist" and many other famous novels.
Charles Dickers is one of the greatest writers of the 19th century. His novels are now translated into most languages of the world.
Упражнение 79During the American War of Independence, the commander of a small unit of soldiers was giving orders to his men about a heavy cannon that they were trying to lift to its place at the top of some fortifications. It was almost beyond their power to lift the weight, and the commander kept shouting encouraging words. An officer, not in uniform, was passing by, and he asked the commander why he did not help the soldiers.
Greatly surprised, the man turned round and said proudly, "Sir, I am a corporal" "Oh, you are, are you?" replied the officer: "I did not know that. I beg your pardon, Mr Corporal." Then he got off the horse he was riding and, taking hold of the rope that the men were pulling at, he pulled with all his strength. And when the cannon was in its place, he turned to the little great man and said, "Mr Corporal, when you have another job like this and have not enough men, send for your commander in chief, and I shall gladly come and help you."
The corporal was struck with astonishment. The man who had helped his soldiers was George Washington.
Упражнение 80William Shakespeare, the greatest English playwright, was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon in England. Stratford is a small country town in a farming district near the centre of England.
The Avon, which is a pretty river with grass and trees all along its banks, runs through Stratford. Not much is known of Shakespeare's father. He was a farmer who, at different times of his life, sold meat and bought aлd sold wool. He was poor and was often in money difficulties.
Also very little is known about the life of his only son William. The little house in which the great writer was born still stands. It is now a museum. William went to school in Stratford.
In 1586 he went to London. Probably the first work he did there was at one of the two theatres that were in London at that time. Then he became an actor and soon began to write plays for the company of actors to which he belonged.
Shakespeare bought the largest house in his home town in 1597, but he did not spend much time there till 1610. He spent the last years of his life mostly in Stratford, but he often visited London. He died in 1616.
Упражнение 81The financial crisis of 2007-2010 has been called by leading economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Economist Peter Morici has termed it "The Great Recession". It contributed to the failure of key businesses, declines in consumer wealth estimated in the trillions of U.S. dollars, substantial financial commitments incurred by governments, and a significant decline in economic activity.
Many causes have been proposed. Both market-based and regulatory solutions have been implemented or are under consideration, while significant risks remain for the world economy over the 2010-2011 periods.
Упражнение 82Rarely has the economic ascent of two relatively poor nations been watched with such awe. The postwar era witnessed economic miracles in Japan and South Korea. But neither was large enough to power worldwide growth or change the game in multiple industries.
China and India, by contrast, possess the weight and dynamism to transform the 21st century global economy. Never has the world seen the simultaneous, sustained takeoffs of two nations that together account for one-third of the planet's population.
What makes the two giants especially powerful is that they complement each other's strengths. Technical and managerial skills in both China and India are becoming more important than cheap assembly labour. China stays dominant in mass manufacturing, and is one of the few nations building nuiltibillion-dollar electronics and heavy industrial plants.
India is a rising power in software, design, services, and precision industry. Its software industry barely existed 15 years ago but is growing rapidly today. How these Asian giants integrate with the rest of the world will largely shape the 21st century global economy.
Упражнение 831. George Bernard Shaw, a well-known English playwright, was born in Ireland in 1856. He was the son of a clerk and had to begin working at an early age. At the age of twenty he moved to London where he became a journalist.
2. The play "Widowers' Houses" shows the egoism and hypocricy of some businessmen who got their profits from the London slums where the poorest people lived.
3. While travelling in Germany Harry Trench, a young English doctor, got acquainted with Mr Sartorius, a respectable-looking gentleman, and his daughter Blanche. The young people fell in love with each other and were going to get married. Trench knew that Sartorius was rich, but he did not know what kind of property he had. He learned about it from a conversation with Lickcheese, Sartorius' rent collector. It turned out that Sartorius was the owner of some tenements in the London slums, and that all the property he had was built by getting money out of the poor people who lived there. Trench was greatly shocked. He did not want to take money from Blanche's father. But Blanche said she could not live on the small income Trench had. They had a quarrel, and Trench left the house. After some time Trench learned that the land on which Sartorius' houses were built belonged to Trench's aunt and that he himself was living on the money got in the same way. Everything comes out "all right" in the end: Trench marries Blanche and becomes a partner in Sartorius' business. The author shows that in fact Trench is no better than Sartorius, Lickcheese and the like.
Упражнение 84My husband picks up the local newspaper every morning from a vending machine on our way to work. The other morning, a girl who appeared to be about six was in front of him in line, buying the paper for her mother, who was sitting in the car. The child put the money for one paper in the slot and took two newspapers!
My husband said to her, "Oh, is this two-for-one day?" The child did not reply. She just took the two newspapers to her mother.
This is stealing, pure and simple. I wonder what this mother is going to think when her daughter becomes a teen and gets arrested for shoplifting at the mall? I suppose she'll wonder where her daugter got the idea that it is OK to take something without paying for it.
The mother missed an opportunity to teach her child right from wrong. If the child took the extra newspaper in error, the mother should have instructed her to put it back. However, if she put the child up to it — shame on her.
Упражнение 85Three bank robbers got a surprise last night. This is what happened. The three robbers, who all work as cleaners at a hospital, drove up to the bank on Main Street. The three men, wearing masks over their faces, got out of the car and ran into the bank. Inside the bank, they pointed guns at the customers and bank tellers. One of the men told all the customers to lie down on the floor. And then one of the other men said something like, "Quick, the money! Give me money!" So one of the tellers handed them some bags. After leaving the bank, the three men jumped into their van and drove off. One mile down the road, the robbers parked their van next to an ambulance they had parked before the robbery. They got into the ambulance and drove off. They went straight to their hospital. After leaving the ambulance in the hospital parking lot, the three men went together into a small room. There, they opened the bags of money they had been given — and got a very unpleasant surprise! The bank teller had given the robbers special bags containing bright red ink! The red ink is released when the bag is opened, and it can't be washed off. So suddenly, the men found themselves covered in red ink! As the men left the room and tried to leave the hospital, an emergency room doctor saw them and she thought, "Oh God, they're all covered in blood." So she tried to help them but they refused her help and ran off. The doctor realized something funny was going on and she called the police. The police caught the robbers — guess where? Outside the bank on Main Street.
Упражнение 86A tsunami is a natural phenomenon consisting of a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. It is also a very large dangerous ocean wave caused by an underwater explosion, earthquake, etc. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and large meteorite impacts all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastation.
The magnitude 9.0 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake triggered a series of lethal tsunamis on December 26, 2004 that killed over 310,000 people (more than 220,000 in Indonesia alone), making it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. The tsunami killed people over an area ranging from the immediate vicinity of the quake in Indonesia, Thailand and the north-western coast of Malaysia to thousands of kilometres away in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and even as far as Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania in eastern Africa.
The disaster prompted a huge worldwide effort to help victims of the tragedy, with hundreds of millions of dollars being raised for disaster relief.
Упражнение 87The 2012 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, will take place in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 27 July to 12 August 2012. London will become the first city to officially host the modern Olympic Games three times, having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948.
London was elected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating Moscow, New York City, Madrid and Paris after four rounds of voting.
The Olympics prompted a redevelopment of many of the areas of London in which the games are to be held.
A total of 12,500 athletes are expected to compete in 300 events in 26 sports. 205 nations are reported to participate in the 2012 Summer Olympics.
Упражнение 88The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games or the 22nd Winter Olympics, will be held in the Russian Federation for the first time; the Soviet Union hosted the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow. The host city Sochi has a population of 400,000 people and is situated in Krasnodar, which is the third largest region in Russia.
The Games will be organized in two clusters: a coastal cluster for ice events in Sochi, and a mountain cluster located in the Krasnaya Polyana Mountains. This will make it one of the most compact Games ever, with around 30 minutes travel time from the coastal to mountain cluster.
The Sochi Olympic Park will be built along the Black Sea coast in the Imeretinskaya Valley, where all the ice venues such as the Bolshoi Ice Palace, the Maly Ice Palace, the Olympic Oval, the Sochi Olympic Skating Centre, the Olympic Curling Centre, the Central Stadium, the Main Olympic Village and the International Broadcast Centre and Main Press Centre, will be built anew for the 2014 Games.
There will be an average distance of 6 km between the Olympic Village and the other coastal venues. The mountain cluster in Krasnaya Polyana will be home to all the skiing and sliding sports. There will be an average distance of 4 km between the mountain sub-village and the venues. There will also be a sub-media centre in the mountain cluster.
Упражнение 89A lioness, a tigress, an actress, a poetess, a woman, an aunt, a wife, a sister, a grandmother, a daughter, a mistress, a baroness, a countess, a shepherdess, a hostess.
Упражнение 90A lord, a boy, a nephew, Mr Smith, a widower, a father, a Frenchman, a cock, an ox, a king, a prince, a duke, a steward.
Упражнение 91Pens, classes, stories, roads, days, cats, bushes, desks, tables, plates, foxes, rooms, ladies, knives, chairs, buses, heroes, matches, ways, houses, families, flags, towns, wolves, countries, lions, parks, plays, dictionaries, thieves, keys.
Упражнение 92Babies, plants, lemons, peaches, bananas, brushes, stars, mountains, trees, shillings, kings, the waiters, the queens, men, the men, women, the women, eyes, shelves, boxes, the cities, boys, geese, the watches, mice, dresses, toys, the sheep, teeth, children, the oxen, deer, the lives, tomatoes, secretaries, crowds, the airports, theatres, the tornadoes, shops, the tragedies.
Упражнение 93These magazines, those stickers, these stamps, those sandwiches, these posters, these teacups, these eggs, those walls, those pictures, these feet, those mountains, these ladies, those windows, these men, those matches, these knives, these books, these families, these pies, those answers, those apartments, those teachers, those comedies.
Упражнение 941. These are spiders. 2. Those are snails. 3. These are stars. 4. These are film stars. 5. Those are cartoons. 6. These are boys. 7. These are babies. 8. Those are plates. 9. Those are flowers. 10. Those are bookshelves. 11. Are these sofas? 12. Are these bookcases? 13. Are these men? 14. Are those balls? 15. Are those trains? 16. Are those planes? 17. Are the windows open? 18. Are the doors closed? 19. Are the boys near the window? 20. Those are not kings. 21. Those are not queens. 22. Those are not buses. 23. These aren't mountains. 24. Those aren't geese. 25. These aren't mice. 26. They are sheep. 27. They are calendars. 28. They are cats. 29. They are not girls. 30. They aren't bags. 31. They aren't trees. 32. They are not bad eggs. 33. They are good eggs. 34. Are those flowers? 35. Are these roses? 36. These are teapots.
Упражнение 951. These men are engineers. 2. Those women are my sisters. 3. These children are my sons. 4. Those geese are big. 5. These mice are white. 6. These men are doctors. 7. Those women are my cousins. They are teachers. 8. Those girls are my nieces. They are pupils. 9. These girls have blue sweaters. 10. These boys have warm coats. 11. My uncles have large flats. 12. There are some tables in the room. 13. We have good pens. Our pens are in our pockets. 14. There are some flowers in the vase. 15. These children's feet are sore. 16. These cups are dirty. 17. Those books are dull. 18. These hotels are very expensive but they are very nice. 19. There are children's playgrounds in the park. 20. Those are new supermarkets in our town. 21. They are delicious lemon pies for dessert. 22. They are nice cotton dresses for my nieces.
Упражнение 961. These phones in the office are out of order. 2. Those blouses are made of silk. 3. These are excellent painting's. 4. His books are very popular and they really interest me. 5. They are difficult words to write. 6. My sons are journalists and they have been very successful. 7. These purses aren't made of leather. 8 Those are my neighbours' cars. 9. Have they got cameras? 10. They are new cassette recorders. 11. These rooms are very large. 12. There are some matches in the box. 13. There are knives over there. 14. There are (some) men and women in the street. 15. These ladies are those gentlemen's wives. 16. These shoes are too Large for my feet. 17. The children are sitting on a bench. 18. My teeth are white. 19. These keys are made of steel. 20. Potatoes are vegetables and cherries are fruit. 21. These are my friends' studies. 22. Our chiefs are very competent.
Упражнение 97Упражнение 97 1. These are my dictionaries. 2. They have new suits. 3. These metals are very hard. 4. Those ships are Russian ones. 5. We heard their voices. 6. Their dogs do not like bread. 7. The plates were on the table. 8. These towns aren't very large. 9. We saw them at the tram stop yesterday. 10. Are those girls your sisters? 11. We shall give you our books. 12. These stories will be unusual ones. 13. Are these good matches? 14. The boys put their books on the desks. 15. They took off their hats. 16. Those houses are new. 17. The young men put their hands in their pockets. 18. Are these students coming with us, too? 19. The women didn't say anything. 20. Do they speak English? 21. The police officers have caught the thieves. 22. They are holding the children hostige.
Упражнение 981. They are very difficult questions to answer. 2. We think we'll have those cakes on the right. 3. Look at those pumpkins! They are the biggest ones we've seen this year. 4. Are these your scarves? 5. Those were cookie jars. 6. What are those children's names? 7. The cats have caught mice. 8. There were ladies, gentlemen, boys, and girls in the room. 9. In the farmyard we could see oxen, sheep, cows, and geese. 10. Are these workers Englishmen or Germans? — They are Frenchmen. 11. Why don't you eat these potatoes? 12. These strawberries are still green. 13. The withered leaves have fallen to the ground. 14. Can you see birds in those trees? 15. Do your teeth still ache? 16. I held up my feet to the fire to warm them. 17. Their children study very well. 18. These men work at our office. 19. There are some new houses in our street. 20. These stories are very exciting. 21. I have hurt my feet. 22. The wolves have been shot. 23. They keep their toys in boxes. 24. Put these knives on those tables.
Упражнение 991. These are birds. 2. Are those also birds? — No, they aren't. Those are cats. 3. Are those good horses? — Yes, they are. 4. Are those cows big or small? — They are big. 5. These are apples and those are flowers. 6. Where are the coins? — They are in the box. 7. What colour are the boxes? — They are green. 8. What are they made of? — They are made of wood, 9. What are those men? — They are clerks. 10. Are they in the office? — Yes, they are. 11. Are those women typists? — No, they aren't. — What are they? — They are doctors. 12. Are his brothers at home? — Yes, they are. 13. These houses have balconies looking out on the street. 14. The architecture of these buildings is quite modern. 15. These are new districts of St Petersburg. 16. There are (some) shops, cinemas andtheatres in the new districts. 17. They are retired workers. 18. We are drivers. 19. We hear the sounds of children's voices. 20. They are nice girls. 21. They are noisy boys.
Притяжательный падеж существительных
Упражнение 1001. The dog's ball. 2. That man's skateboard. 3. The children's songs. 4. This woman's umbrella. 5. My friend's room. 6. My son's questions. 7. My brother's wife. 8. Our teacher's table. 9. Pushkin's poems. 10. This girl's voice. 11. The workers' new club. 12. Pete's letter. 13. My parents' car. 14. This woman's life. 15. These women's handbags. 16. My sister's flat is large. 17. My brother's children are at home. 18. The boys' room is large. 19. This girl's name is Jane. 20. These students' work is interesting. 21. My son's computer is modern. 22. He was my cousins' friend.
Признаки основных форм в глагольной системе английских времен.Грамматическая категория времени передает отношение действия к моменту речи. Соответственно, глагол может иметь формы настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времени. Название любого из двенадцати английских времен начинается с одного из трех слов: Present, Past, Future. Есть четыре вида настоящего, четыре вида прошедшего и четыре вида будущего, которые известны как Simple, Progressive, Perfect и Perfect Progressive. Особое внимание учащимся следует обратить на ключевые слова, так как именно они помогают сориентироваться, какой вид глагола в каждом времени следует использовать, чтобы точно передать смысл высказывания.
Признаки PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS):