WORD-BUILDING exercises

Ex. 1. Переведите следующие слова, выделите в них суффиксы и префиксы:

Untrue, prehistoric, ultramodern, postwar, ex-champion, anti-body, de­ compose, decode, deform, depart, discover, disappearance, reread, re­construct, coauthor, unequal, misunderstand, undress, disarm, anti-fascist, cooperation, co-existence, interaction, superhuman, ultra-violet.

Ex. 2. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова. Переведите их:

Achievement — achieve, resistance — resistant, assistance — assist — assistant, celebration — celebrate, difference — different, city — citizen, na­tion — national — nationality, measure — measurement, develop — develop­ment, act — active — activity, contain — container, discover — discovery — dis­coverer, literature — literary, graduate — graduation — undergraduate — post-graduate, educate — education, progress — progressive, act — action — activity — active, govern — governor — government.

Ex. З. Образуйте от данных глаголов существительные с по­мощью суффикса -ег или orПереведите на русский язык:

To lead, to write, to read, to visit, to speak, to sleep, to act, to direct, to conduct, to drive, to fight, to mine, to report, to sing, to skate, to swim, to teach, to travel, to sail, to invent, to found, to compose.

Ex. 4. Образуйте от данных слов существительные с помощью суффикса ist, —ism, —ian. Переведите на русский язык:

Special, social, art, capital, economy, international, piano, technic, ma­thematics, statistics, politics, music, electric, Russia, Hungary, Canada, In­dia.

are, aim, use, shape, fruit, power, thought, harm, colour.

Ex. 5. Образуйте от данных глаголов существительные с помощью суффикса ment. Переведите на русский язык:

Develop, achieve, move, arrange, treat, state, improve, agree, equip, govern, require, measure, announce, pave,amuse,argue,advertise,invest.

Ex. 6. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффиксов ful и less, переведите их на русский язык:

Beauty, thank, hope, doubt, c

Ex. 7. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффиксов able, —ible, переведите их на русский язык:

Change, convert, prevent, break, compare, desire, profit, read, comfort, respect, expect,fashion,flex.

Ex. 8. Найдите и выделите суффиксы в данных словах и определите, к ка­кой части речи эти слова относятся:

British, foolish, understandable, heartless, pitiless, successful, experi­ment, function, musician, socialist, artist, capitalism, professional, funda­mental, industrial, doubtful, useful, different, treatment, creative, attrac­tive, peaceful, dangerous, elementary, childish, active, economic, director, worker, passage, marriage, silence, freedom, kingdom.

Ex. 9. Образуйте глаголы с помощью суффикса en:

Red, tight, soft, deep, short, dark, bright, weak, black, white, sweet, sharp,

Strong, long.

Ex. 10. Образуйте наречия с помощью суффикса -lу и переведи­те их:

Bad, first, part, quick, strong, short, silent, rapid, wide, extreme, cruel, kind, happy.

Ex. 11. Образуйте глаголы от данных существительных. Переве­дите их:

Turn, smile, smoke, snow, start, stay, step, stop, study, talk, visit, rest, air, paper, cover, handle, cause, watch, act, address, answer, brush, clean, cross, crowd, wave, wish, work, dance, doubt, dress, end, fight, help, hope, joke, laugh, lift, light, love, mind, paper, pencil, place, plan, play, post, re­ply, report, return, sail, show.

Ex. 12. Переведите на русский язык. Выделите словообразу­ющие элементы. Определите, к какой части речи относятся данные слова:

React, reaction, reactor, reactivity; science, scientific, scientist; indust­ry, industrial, industrious; cold, coldly, coldness; dark, darkness, darken; happy, happily, happiness, unhappy; equal, equally, unequal, equality; free, freedom, freely; attention, attentive, attentively; sun, sunny, sunless; care, careful, careless, carefully, carelessness; to differ, different, difference, indifferent; England, English, Englishman; poison,poisonous,extreme,extremely,extremity,extremist,friend,friendship,friendly,unfriendly.

Ex. 13. Переведите следующие сложные слова:

Aircraft,airspace, Air Force , summer-resort,rest-house, custom-house, dining-room,dining car,living-room , fireplace, nightlife,newsagent,sunglasses,popstar,snowboarding,bungee jumping,

earthquake,greenhouse,laptop,software,science-fiction,solar system,so-called, haircut , hairbrush, icebox, newspaper, notebook,rain forest ,lifetime , raincoat, sportsman, sunshine,sunrise,sunset,sunflower,body-piercing.

Ex. 14. Прочтите следующие пары слов, соблюдая ударения. Переведите их:

An accent — to accent, a contract — to contract, a content — to content, a contest — to contest,an increase-to increase, a convict — to convict, a perfect — to perfect, a record — to record,refuse-to refuse,a refugee-to refuge.

Ex. 15. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся выделен­ные слова:

1. Не works as a teacher. 2. I saw one of his works at the exhibition. 3. I was waiting for your report. 4. They report the results of their experi­ment every Monday. 5. His report contains some of his thoughts about the experiment. 6. You’ll make progress if you work hard. 7. He thought about his new work. 8. I have a present for you. 9. I am busy at present. 10. He presented me with a book.

Ex. 16. Проанализируйте состав следующих слов. Определите части речи. Дайте начальную форму. Переведите слова:

Powerful, inventor, high-quality, network, demoralize, profitable, dis­like, disagree, movement, shorten, incorrect, electricity, fruitful, fruitless, happiness, dangerous, noisy, sunny, rainy, badly, strongly, reading, teach­ing, rebuild, retell, leader, teacher, unhappy, unusual, translation, coopera­tion, schoolboy, icebreaker.

Ex. 17. Напишите сложные существительные, исходя из объяснений.

Например: A machine for drying hair – hair drier.

1. A thing for opening tins — … . 2. A machine for playing records — … . 3. A machine for mixing food — … . 4. A thing that times eggs (when they are boiling) — … . 5. Things for warming people’s legs — … . 6. Stuff that kills flies — … . 7. A liquid that removes paint — … . 8. A tool that opens bottles — … . 9. A thing for peeling potatoes — … . 10. A liquid for removing eye makeup — … . 11. Stuff for freshening the air — … .

Ex. 18. Распределите прилагательные по трем группам: 1) люди, 2) места, 3) вещи:

Obstinate, unspoilt, hand-made, waterproof, easy-going, breathtaking, aggressive, deserted, overgrown, overcrowded, cunning, picturesque, arrogant, long-lasting, spoilt, automatic, accurate, artificial.

Ex. 19 Выберите слово с нужным по смыслу префиксом или суффиксом.

1. I know Jim Kerry is very popular but I find him totally childish / childlike. 2. I couldn’t work out whom the letter was from. The signature was childish / childlike. 3. Sarah is so childish / childlike. She always plays trick on her friends. 4. It was wonderful to watch the tiny lambs playing. I got such childish / childlike pleasure from the experience. 5. Sophie is extremely sensitive / sensible at the moment. Anything you say seems to upset her. 6. Karen is not a very sensitive / sensible person. She wore high-heeled shoes for our four-mile walk. 7. I’ve never known her to tell a lie. She’s a very true / truthful person. 8. I can never watch sad films that are based on true / truthful a story. They always make me cry. 9. Susan is so intolerable / intolerant of other people. She never accepts anyone else’s opinion, and she always thinks she knows best. 10. I find Mark’s behaviour intolerable / intolerant. It’s unfair to be so selfish. 11. We’re having an economic / economical crisis at the moment. James has lost his job and I don’t know how we are going to pay the rent. 12. It’s more economic / economical to drive slowly. You can do a lot more miles to the gallop.

Ex.19 Подберите к каждой тройке слов такое, чтобы с его помощью образовать составные существительные, используйте слова: board, green, paper, book, birthday, blood, rain, site, road, sports, ice, water, day, night, hand, case, sun, bag.

Например: camp…, building…, bomb… – campsite, building site, bomb-site.

1. …test, …pressure, …donor. 2. …fall, …melon, …skiing. 3. …house, …grocer, …salad. 4. …club, …mare, …shift. 5. brief…, suit…, book… . 6. paper…, plastic…, shoulder… . 7. …bow, …coat, …drop. 8. …shine, …rise, …set. 9. …works, …sign, …rage. 10. black…, floor…, notice… . 11. …light, …break, …dream. 12. …shake, …writing, …book. 13. …cube, …berg, …rink. 14. …cake, …present, …card. 15. …scape, …lady, …slide. 16. …car, …center, …ground. 17. address…, visitor’s…, note… .

Ex.20 Дополните предложения сложными существительными в скобках (это могут быть и составные существительные, и существительные в притяжательном падеже в простой или аналитической форме).

1. Your coat is on the … (back, chair). 2. You’ve just spilt the … (milk, cat). 3. Can you buy some … (paper, toilet). 4. I never listened to my … (advise, parents). 5. Can you buy a … (wine, bottle) to have with supper? 6. What did that … (road, sigh) say? Did you see it? 7. It’s such a mess in here. There are empty … (wine, bottles) everywhere. 8. The … (Prime Minister, duties) include entertaining heads of the state. 9. The … (my shoe, heel) has come off. 10. Can I borrow your … (brush, hair)? 11. What happened at the … (film, end)? 12. Here is … (today, news). 13. Where is the nearest … (Metro, station)? 14. It’s my … (anniversary, parents, wedding) next week. 15. The … (company, success) is due to its efficiency. 16. I’ve got a … (fortnight, holiday) next month. 17. The … (government, economic policy) is confusing. 18. My children go to the local … (school, state). 19. The annual … (rate, inflation) is about 4 percent. 20. Are there any … (coffee, cups) in your bedroom? There are none in the kitchen. 21. Do you want a … (coffee, cup)?

Ex.21. Заполните пропуски глаголом или существительным: advice – to advise, use – to use, abuse – to abuse, belief – to believe, relief – to relieve, grief – grieve, excuse – to excuse, breath – to breathe, half – to halve, house – to house, safe – to save, bath – to bathe.

1. It is my personal … that this man is innocent. 2. Let me listen to your chest. Take a deep … and say “Ah”. 3. You should put your valuables in the … . 4. Drug … is a terrible problem all over the world. 5. I know it isn’t good for my skin, but I love sun … . 6. I’ve been so worried about you! It’s such a … to see you at last! 7. “What are we going to do with this cake?” “Cut it in two. You take … and I’ll take … .” 8. Can you show me how to … this new coffee machine? 9. The refugees are … in temporary accommodation. 10. She apologizes for her behavior, and said it was because she’d had a busy day, but that’s no … for breaking all the plates. 11. People need time to … after the death of someone they love. 12. Take my … . Never marry for money. Marry for love.

Ex. 22. Напишите слово противоположное по значению, используя префикс

Kind, honest, credible, appear, fair, equal, pleased, continue, fasten, normal, employed, friendly, trust, professional, known, cover, safe, use, probable, important, emotional.